Comparing ECS, EC2, and Lambda: A Guide to AWS Compute Services

Neal Davis
4 min readMar 27, 2024

In the ever-evolving landscape of cloud computing, Amazon Web Services (AWS) stands out as a leading provider with a broad array of services designed to cater to various needs, from simple applications to complex enterprise solutions.

This article delves into the comparison of three distinct AWS offerings:

  1. Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) for Docker container management.
  2. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) for scalable computing capacity.
  3. AWS Lambda for serverless computing.

These services form the backbone of AWS’s cloud computing platform and are critical for those aiming to excel in AWS certification exams.

Understanding their functionalities, use cases, and how they interplay in the AWS ecosystem is vital for anyone looking to leverage AWS services effectively.

The Essence of Service Models: IaaS, CaaS, and FaaS

Before diving deep into the specifics of ECS, EC2, and Lambda, it’s crucial to grasp the foundational cloud service models:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Containers as a Service (CaaS)
  • Functions as a Service (FaaS)

Each model represents a different approach to cloud computing, offering unique advantages and considerations.

IaaS: A Foundation of Cloud Computing

IaaS is the most flexible cloud computing model, offering virtualized physical computing resources over the Internet. AWS’s EC2 is a prime example of IaaS, providing users with virtual servers — known as instances — for running applications.

IaaS users are responsible for managing the operating system, applications, and data, while AWS takes care of the underlying physical infrastructure. This model offers significant cost savings and scalability compared to traditional physical servers.

CaaS: Efficient and Scalable Container Management

Moving up the abstraction level, CaaS allows users to deploy and manage containers without worrying about the underlying servers or infrastructure.

Containers provide a lightweight, efficient method of packaging an application along with its dependencies, libraries, and other necessary components, which can then be run in any environment.

AWS offers ECS and Elastic Kubernetes Service (EKS) as its CaaS solutions, alongside AWS Fargate for serverless container execution. This model simplifies application deployment, scaling, and management, making it ideal for microservices architectures.

FaaS: The Pinnacle of Serverless Computing

At the highest level of abstraction, FaaS abstracts away everything but the code. Users simply upload their code, and AWS takes care of the rest, including server provisioning, maintenance, and scaling.

AWS Lambda epitomizes FaaS, charging only for the compute time used without any concern for the underlying infrastructure. This model offers unparalleled convenience and efficiency for event-driven applications and microservices.

Deep Dive into AWS Compute Services

Amazon EC2: The Workhorse of IaaS

Amazon EC2 is often considered the backbone of AWS’s computing services. It allows users to provision virtual servers on-demand, offering a wide range of instance types to suit various workloads. EC2 instances are highly configurable, with options for CPU, memory, storage, and networking.

EC2 also integrates seamlessly with other AWS services, providing a robust environment for deploying and managing applications.

Amazon ECS: Mastering Container Orchestration

Amazon ECS is a fully managed container orchestration service that simplifies running, managing, and scaling containerized applications. ECS supports Docker containers and allows users to run applications on a managed cluster of Amazon EC2 instances.

For those seeking a serverless option, AWS Fargate enables running containers without managing servers or clusters. ECS integrates deeply with AWS services, such as Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) and Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), for a cohesive cloud experience.

AWS Lambda: Revolutionizing Computing with Serverless

AWS Lambda has transformed how applications are built and scaled in the cloud. By running code in response to triggers without provisioning or managing servers, Lambda enables rapid development and deployment of applications.

It supports various programming languages and use cases, from web applications to data analysis. Lambda is inherently scalable, automatically adjusting compute capacity to match the workload.

Choosing the Right AWS Compute Service

Deciding whether to use EC2, ECS, or Lambda depends on specific project requirements, such as control, scalability, and cost-efficiency. EC2 offers the most control and customization but requires more management.

ECS and Fargate provide a balance between control and convenience, ideal for containerized applications. Lambda represents the ultimate in convenience and cost-efficiency for event-driven or temporary workloads.

Harnessing the Power of AWS

To fully leverage the capabilities of EC2, ECS, and Lambda, it’s important to understand their strengths and how they can best be applied to solve different types of problems. Developers and IT professionals should consider the nature of their applications, their performance and scalability requirements, and their team’s expertise when choosing between these services.

Furthermore, AWS’s commitment to innovation means that these services continue to evolve, offering new features and capabilities. Staying informed about the latest AWS updates can help users take advantage of these improvements to optimize their cloud-based applications and services.

Preparing for AWS Certification

For those preparing for AWS certification exams, a thorough understanding of EC2, ECS, and Lambda is indispensable. These services are fundamental to the AWS cloud and represent critical knowledge areas for several AWS certifications.

Hands-on experience, combined with a detailed study of AWS’s documentation and best practices, will provide a solid foundation for mastering these services and achieving certification success.


In summary, Amazon EC2, ECS, and Lambda offer a range of options for deploying and managing applications in the cloud, each with its own set of advantages.

By carefully selecting the right service for their needs, users can build efficient, scalable, and cost-effective solutions on AWS.

As the cloud computing landscape continues to evolve, AWS remains at the forefront, providing powerful tools and services that empower developers to innovate and solve complex problems.

Whether you’re a seasoned cloud professional or new to AWS, mastering these services is a step toward unlocking the full potential of cloud computing.



Neal Davis

Founder of Digital Cloud Training, IT instructor and Cloud Solutions Architect with 20+ year of IT industry experience. Passionate about empowering his students